Tuesday, September 05, 2006

The right うえ

Something I never understood well last year was the different usages of うえ・上. But after reading through my 実力ウップ book, I've come to a better understanding of three of the grammar points that use うえ・上. I have not tested them in conversation, and don't know whether they are 日常言葉 or not. (A little help here!)

The three points I have learned are as follows:




1.Let's start with うえに. Sometimes written in hiragana and
not kanji, うえに conveys a meaning of "as well as; in addition;
besides; moreover; not only X, but X." However, I like to take the more
literal meaning associated with it and say "on top of~"

例: 小さな違反をしただけなのに、警察に呼ばれたうえに、大きな罰金を払わせられた。
Although it was only a small violation, I was called by the
police and on top of that, I was made to pay a big

2.上で is very similar to してから, meaning "after." However, 上で bases the second action (B) on the results of the first (A). Therefore: "Based on the results of A, B" is a close translation. "Upon doing X, do Y" and "After X, Y" are also acceptable.

例: よく話し合った上で、結婚するかどうか決めてください
Please decide whether or not to marry after a good discussion.

3.This final point is probably the hardest. 上は is a strong way for the speaker to convey an idea, wish, judgement, guess, etc. It basically means "Since~X" or "When~X." In this sense, it is similar to からには/以上は or とき, respectively.

例: 彼女のことだから、「浮気しないわ」と言った上は、絶対に浮気しないだろうね。
It's her character, so when she says she won't fool around, she absolutely won't.

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