Thursday, September 28, 2006

につれて、に伴って、に従って、and と共に

This is a copy of a thread I posted on on Tae Kim's Japanese forum. The entire thread can be found at: http://www.guidetojapanese.org/forum/viewtopic.php?pid=8006#p8006



Damn --I spent a long time on this, and got confused, myself, a number of times.

...so wish me luck on not messing up.
Let's start with the questions:

留学に (   ) ビザの申請が必要になる。a ともに  b したがって  c 伴って d つれて
How do you choose between b,c and d?

The answer is C.

伴う
Ok, well, に伴う has a nuance of
1. X accompanies X /be Xed along with X.
So here に伴う would make the most sense.


For question two, let's break this into two sentences, so as not to get overwhelmed.
part I: "日本の祭りやそこで伝えられてきた伝統芸能も、時代 (1  ) 行われなくなってきた。"
a. につれて b. とともに

Answer 1: とともに = Both X and X; together with X, X"
...伝統芸能も、時代と共に行われなくなってきた。
"In English, "...the traditional performing arts, together with the era, will both cease to go on."
part II: "そのような伝統芸能が減っていく (2  ) 伝統文化も失われてきている。"

Answer 2: につれて = "As"
"そのような伝統芸能が減っていくにつれて、伝統文化も失われてきている。"
"In English, "As those kinds of traditional performing arts continue to decrease, traditional culture, too, will be lost."

But if we were to put in と共に (with) the meaning wouldn't fit well with 行う, meaning proceed, go on. Process of elimination, baby!

So, here's a quick overview:

にしたがう
にしたがって
can be interpreted along the lines of
1. "do X according to Y"
2. "as X change happens, B change happens"
** and also, at the beginning of sentences, it can be used like だから meaning "therefore, so, consequently."

例文: 上司の命令にしたがって、手紙を送りました。
I sent the letter according to my bosses instructions.


につれて
につれて basically means
1. "as X change happens, Y change happens"
2. "along with X, Y"

例文:気温があたたかくなるにつれて、風邪が良くなった
As the temperture warmed, I got rid of my cold.


と共に
と共に
has a nuance similar to 一緒に
1. "X together with Y"
2. "along with/as well as"
3. "both"
4. "at the same time"

例文:大阪は東京とともに日本経済の中心地である
Osaka, together with Tokyo, are the center of the Japanese economy. (Thanks to DC at jgram.com)


に伴う
Ok, well, に伴う has a nuance of
1. X accompanies Y
2. be Xed along with Y
3. X is associated with Y

例文:地震に伴う火災で、多くの人命が失われた
Many people perished in the fires associated with the earthquake.

Whew!

12 comments:

yorkii said...

thanks for this. the nuances between these grammatic phases couls be described as pedantic at best. i think that correct usage is something that would come with using them more, but because they are often written only and not used in everyday speech between friends, the chace to use them is small.

thanks for tackling them.

yorkii

jljzen88 said...

No problem. In general, though --I hear につれて and と共に quite a bit in conversation. But you're right. The best way to learn is by using them.

yorkii said...

大阪は東京とともに日本経済の中心地である
the real source for the above is from the 完全マスター2級文法 book :P

Marc and Kim said...

Pretty much all of these examples were taken verbatim from the 完全マスター日本語能力試験文法問題対策 (2級)
This is clearly plagiarism not to quote the source.
I also did not find your explanations useful. In fact, they just add to the confusion in my opinion.

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